black t shirt|
The declaration of bankruptcy allows debtors to solve significant financial debts after their non-exempt assets are distributed. Bankruptcy in the United States falls under Federal jurisdiction by the United States Constitution (Article 1, Section 8).
However, bankruptcy is implemented as statute law, and relevant statutes are incorporated within Bankruptcy Code of Title 11 of the United States Code. At present, two forms of filing bankruptcy are available to individuals: Chapter 7 and Chapter 13. Chapter 7 bankruptcy is a liquidation of assets, while Chapter 13 involves a reorganization by which the debtor creates a three- to five-year payment plan.
Although bankruptcy cases are filed in the United States Bankruptcy Court, they are often highly dependent upon state laws. Hawaii is one of the thirteen states in the U.S. that offers a choice between federal and state bankruptcy laws.
Hawaii bankruptcy laws provide exemptions that save a part of the properties from bankruptcy. Details of the exempted property are provided in the Hawaii bankruptcy chart. When bankruptcy is filed in Hawaii, an individual gets federal exemption in addition to Hawaii exemptions. According to Hawaii bankruptcy laws, an exemption limit applies to any equity in property secured by loans. Properties included in the Hawaii exemption chart are homestead (up to $30,000 for senior citizens and $20,000 for others), all insurances, property of business partnerships, pensions, personal property such as appliances, books, burial plots, clothes, jewelry to $1,000, and motor vehicles to $2,575, public benefits, tools of trade, and wages to minimum of 80%. No wildcard exemptions are given in Hawaii.
In Hawaii bankruptcy law, Chapter 7 filing has advantages such as a complete fresh start, immediate protection, lack of a minimum limit on the debt, and quick discharge of the case. The advantages of a Hawaii Chapter 13 payment plan are that it enables a person to keep his property, has more dischargeable debts, gives more payment time, and separates creditors by class. Major changes in the new act effective October 17, 2005, include a means test, proof of income, state exemptions, counseling, and child support.
Declaring bankruptcy is an important decision and quite complicated in its implementation. Hiring an attorney with experience in the field concerned is generally recommended.
write by Leighton